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Thraco-Dacians.

Occurrence Thraco-Dacians frequently date to 12 - 11-th c. A. D. Then peoples of the north have destroyed Troja and have crushed Hittite empire. Then ancient Mycenae has fallen. But addition of the basic cultural worlds of Europe - Celtic one, Greek one, Italian one and others has taken place later - in epoch 10 - 8-th c. B. D. Probably, to this time it is expedient to attribute and occurrence of Thrace.

To 6-th c. A. D. extensive and rich Thrace had so rich population, that Greeks counted the Thracians the second nations of the world on number (after Hindus). It was divided on set of tribes. At the end of 6 - the beginning 5-th c. A. D. southern and east parts of the country were seized by Persian tsar that has sped up process of cultural - political development. After a leaving of Persians there has arisen Thracian kingship. This state played the important role in life of East Mediterranean, supplying Athenes bread. But in middle 4-th c. A. D. this kingship has fallen under united impact by Macedonian Phillip and Scythian tsar Atej. The country was part of Macedonia.

After disintegration of empire of Alexander southern Thrace became arena of numerous wars. In 279 - 277 here have intruded the Celts and have formed the own state, which has existed till 220 A. D. The Thracian kingship has revived, though and is strongly cut down borders. It was kept till 31 A. D., when it was finally won by Rome (the leader slaves Spartak was the most known Thracians).

The Tribes of Thracian group lived to the north from Danube, referred to Dacians or Getians. Being in a distance from east and Greek centres, they have not left brilliant art. But their military power grew. Getian tsar has managed to create the strong state. One of successors the Great Alexander, has sufferred defeat from Getians and taken prisoner. A bit later, however, Thracian empire was disorganized.

In 60 B. D. Burebista, one of Dacian leaders has organized great power. Having revived people, suffered before from drunkenness, having united various Daco-Getians tribes and having constructed in Dacia set of fortresses - a stronghold of the power, tsar has begun external expansion. On the Roman data his army totaled 200 thousand person.

About 60 A. D. Burebista it was set to the west, having crushed Celt tribes in Central Europe. Thus he has put an end to Celt domination in this region. Then power Dacians was directed to the east where it was taken the important Greek centre. Probably, Dacians have penetrated into area of Dnepr. Burebista was going to interfere with civil war in Rome, but Caesar's fast victory has broken his plans. Already Caesar, in turn, prepared for intrusion into Dacia. On a twist of fate, both these of the figure were killed as a result of plots almost simultaneously - Caesar in 44, and Burebista in 45 A. D. Dacia has broken up. Burebista is interesting also to that has constructed many sanctuaries. They had the square and round form and were open, consisting from numbers of wooden or stone columns. Sanctuaries, probably, symbolised sacred groves.

New association of the country has taken place at the end of 1-th c. A. D. Under rulership by Decebal Dacia conducted active foreign policy, becoming the centre of gravity of the anti-Roman forces. Decebal actually has won war against emperor Domician, but new emperor of Rome Trajan with hundred-thousandth army has broken power Dacians. Struggle was extremely fierce. Decebal was killed, fortresses were destroyed, many Dacians have left to Carpathian mountains. The rests of the population have mixed up with the Roman colonists, and became ancestors of medieval Vlachs and modern the Romanian. Thraco-Dacians languages were superseded with national Latin.

On it the history of the given group of peoples comes to an end. It is necessary to mention also, that in Hellenistic epoch in Asia Minor there was a small Thracian state Vifinija, and in Bospor an empire in Crimea long time of a rule Thracian dynasty.

The Thraco-Dacians have not left mythological texts. Therefore our knowledge on their mythology (besides avaricious mentions of the Greek authors) there is a rich art of Southern Thrace. Basically it is metal elements of arms and horse harnesses, and also various cups and vessels. After the Roman gain in Thrace (as well as in Gallia) the monumental style which has expressed, in particular in a genre of a funeral plate with the syncretic, "Thraco-Roman" image of the horseman blossoms.

 

Fantalov Alex

CULTURE of BARBAROUS EUROPE: TYPOLOGY of MYTHOLOGICAL IMAGES

Speciality 24.00.01 - the theory and a history of culture

The dissertation on competition of a doctor degree of cultural science

Illyrian history.

 

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 Contact E-mail: fantalov@lycos.com