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Mythology of Scythian and Persian Hero.

From the end 5-th c. B.D. the image of the person again appears in Scythian art, achieving in 4-th c. B.D. A wide circulation (that Rayevsky connects with to growing Greek influence - Rayevsky, 1985). We shall note, that in same time anthropomorphic art of Thrace has blossomed, and a little bit earlier - Etruria. Salutary, as a whole, influence of Greece became the catalyst for expression by the next barbarous peoples own (but genetically related with Greek ones) ideas. However, something the Scythians simply ordered in Greeks, as, for example, the silver vessel from a barrow Kul-Obi. The Greek masters, undoubtedly, have performed work with a profound knowledge not only ethnographies, but also outlooks of Scythians. Here we come back to a genealogic legend of Scythians about Heracles's test to his sons. "There is a hypothesis, that the myth about this test is submitted on ritual vessels from Scythian barrows: on a vessel from Kul-Obi consequences of attempt of each of brothers are represented to pull a fatherly bow, and on other vessel - delivery younger of sons of a fatherly bow as symbol of authority and exile of two grown-ups" (Myths of nations of the world, 1998, v. 2, 448). The plate from Sahnovka on which it is shown, in D.S. Rayevsky's opinion, the following - the episode of a myth not kept in records is of interest: brothers Kolaksay drink from rithon and vow to ruin him. (Rayevsky, 1977, 116). The well-known crest from barrow Soloha, executed also the Greek masters, in that case, shows the ending of a legend. The horseman together with the infantryman (the expelled brothers) battle to lonely Scythian (Kolaksay) under whom the horse (in the same place is killed, p. 117). Inevitability of Kolaksay's destruction deduced by Rayevsky from the following reasons. First, already mentioned already Scythian ritual. "It is represented quite justified, M.I. Artamonov's opinion and G. Dumezil, that the character who falls asleep with gold relics, and then is doomed to fast death, is the person replacing in ritual of real Scythian king. Hence, events occuring to him simulate that was 'in the beginning' - destiny of the first owner of sacred gold, Kolaksay" (p. 111). (There we see a ceremony, which is going back to original ritual killing of sacred king, perfectly described by G. Fraser in his well-known 'Gold branch'. It is necessary to add the stage represented on a crest is as though anthropomorphic variant of a theme 'torment').

Second, Rayevsky will carry out analogy to a plot from Persian epos 'Shahname'. (p. 115). Faridoon, the founder of a legendary dynasty of the Iranian tsars, has received authority, having killed three-headed Zahhak. Having grown old, he has divided an empire - actually the world, between his three sons. Salm have got Rum and the West, Tura - Chine and Turan. Younger Irag has received the best share - Iran and Arabistan. Then the major brothers with envy have killed him (an ideological substantiation of enmity of Iran and Turan).

Here is pertinent to remind, that Middle Persian 'Faridoon' in more ancient Avesta traditions sounded as 'Traetaona'. And in the first Herodot versions of a genealogic legend a primogenitor of the Scythians were Targitay. Besides, Greeks could deform a pronunciation of a Scythian name which in the original was probable more similar on 'Traetaona'.

Avesta Traetaona it is rather close to vedic Trita. (Thus in 'Avesta' is also own Trita - as soon as splitting there is uniform image. This Trita was the great healer who has expelled from the world illnesses. He was the third person who has squeezed out gold juice of haoma - a sacred plant and he became a father of mighty son Keresaspa, who won set of dragons and demons (Rak, 1998, 214 - 215). But vedic Trita is more ancient. Separate pies of myths give interesting data about this mysterious Indian deity. Trita, being at the bottom of deep well, appeals about the help. Or he incurs fault for murder by Indra three headed dragon Visvarupa. It believes in earlier variant of myth Visvarupa has struck by Trita. The ancient Greek Triton and especially the hero of Russian fairy tales Ivan Third (Ivan Tret'jak, Ivan Vodovich) which having won three headed serpent, appears in колодце - 'other world' on fault of brothers is close to this image. (Myths of nations of the world, 1998. v. 1, 530 - 531). The third wins tripartite one - ancient Indo-European plot. In adds much in our understanding of mythology of the Cultural Hero.

Not casually and replacement of Targitay by Heracles in the second Herodot's myth versions. Heracles also won three headed monsters - Cerberus, three bodied giant Geryon (see victory over three-headed monster ). Probably, the last was struck by the hero before Heracles has met snake-legged goddess. At least, it agrees Herodot, Heracles has come to Api, driving bulls Geryon.

The snake-legged goddess with which Heracles has married it is identified with Api of the Scythian pantheon. That in first version myth she (as Boristhena becomes wife Zeus/Papay and with mother Heracles, should not surprise. Incestuous relations are typical for the Iranian mythologies (Myths of nations of the world, 1998, v.2, 447). But in a more comprehensive sense they are characteristic for the Great Goddess which Scythian variant, undoubtedly, is Api. We can see her snake legged figure on plate from a barrow Big Cimbalka. Here again it is necessary to address to the Etruscans. On their funeral relieves the Great goddess, under name Scilla, is represented with the most full understanding of her dual, sky-earth nature - legs-snakes and wings of a bird.

The Scythians esteemed also other great female deity - Tabiti. M.I. Artamonov identified her with Api. But Herodot mentioned these goddesses are separately, besides they were compared: the first with Greek Hesta, the second with Greek Gaia . "the Hellenistic world has kept features of two 'variants' of reverence Hesta, most likely reflecting two chronological stages of development of her cult. In classical epoch the goddess this has got the specialised shape of a deity of a home <...> Literary sources have kept memoirs on earlier step of development when she represented itself as older among gods, goddesses of fire which various functions were roles of a deity of a home, sacrificial fire (and, hence, and prays), and at last embodiment of unites of the certain social organism" (Rayevsky, 1977, 90). A stage on gold plate from barrow Chertomlik (4-th c. B.D.) representing goddess with a mirror and the man with rithon as a ceremony of wedding of mortal (king) with the goddess. (pp. 98 - 101). It is necessary to add points of Artamonov's and Rayevsky's views essentially do not contradict each other and both these goddesses can represent two parties of the Great Goddess - terrestrial and heavenly.

About divine spouse Api - Papay is known little. His identification with the Zeus/Jove as though speaks, that he was the God of the Sky. The name of Papay is interpreted by the majority of researchers as 'father' and function of 'paternity' in wide understanding pulls together him with such characters, as Indian Dyaus, Baltic Dievas, Slavic Diy. But he could be and the God of Earth Powers. For the benefit of it the origin Targitay (Scythian Cultural Hero) from Papay, and also that the Scythians esteemed the special god identified by Herodot with Ares.

Scythian Ares were devoted huge altars from brushwood. There is at the top of such altar the ancient iron sword, serving by a symbol of a deity was set up. The horses, horned cattle and captured were sacrificed to him. As we saw a sword were the characteristic weapon of the God of the Clear Sky.

We have considered Scythian art agrees periods offered by Rayevsky. But there is one group of images which does not submit (and the scientist himself about it writes - Rayevsky, 1985, 135) tothem. They are the stone idols installed at top of the barrow. They are two kinds: worth and as though sitting on a horse. Idols were produced with 7-th c. B.D. And the given process proceeded and then when in Scyctia the animal style which completely has superseded animal motives from all other spheres of art dominated. There are the various interpretation of these images. And Rybacov considers their sculptures Hoytosir-Dazhbog . (Rybacov, 1987, 68 - 70). D. Berchu treated idols southwest Scythia as displays of Thracian culture to which the cult of the deity-patron of dead is connected. N.B. Elagina believed Scythian idols images of died king with symbols of imperial authority. (Elagina, 1959. P. 195). P.N. Shultz spoke, that early sculptures showed a hero-primogenitor with attributes of man's force, average - the military leader, late - portraits died as a receptacle of his vital force. At last A.I. Terenozhkin directly names Scythian idols images of Kolaksay. All listed judgements do not contradict each other and well correspond with suggested in the given work the circuit of pantheon (the God of Sky, the God of Thunder, the God of Earth Powers, the Cultural Hero, the Great Goddess).

Fantalov Alex

CULTURE of BARBAROUS EUROPE: TYPOLOGY of MYTHOLOGICAL IMAGES

Speciality 24.00.01 - the theory and a history of culture

The dissertation on competition of a doctor degree of cultural science

Images of Sarmatian deities and the Osset epos.

 

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